- This was followed by a number of other coercive measures described in the textbooks as pacific blockades.
- This opens up a variety of possibilities, such as good offices, mediation, the appointment of a commission of inquiry, arbitration, reprisals, pacific blockade and war.
- Though this does not affect pacific blockades in principle, it supersedes them in practice by a new procedure for some of the cases in which they have hitherto been employed.
- On 7 December 1902 both Britain and Germany issued ultimatums to Venezuela, even though there was still disagreement about whether to impose a pacific blockade ( as the Germans wanted ) or a war blockade ( as the British wanted ).
- The first case, however, in which the operation was really a blockade, unaccompanied by hostilities, and which therefore can be properly called a pacific blockade, was that which in 1837 Great Britain exercised against arms and sentenced to six years imprisonment.
- Since then pacific blockades have only been exercised by the great powers as a joint measure in their common interest, which has also been that of peace; and in this respect the term is taking a new signification in accordance with the ordinary sense of the word pacific.
- On the other hand, the object and justification of a pacific blockade being to avoid war, that is general hostilities and disturbance of international traffic with the state against which the operation is carried on, rights of war cannot consistently be exercised against ships belonging to other states than those concerned.